Tekstinymmärtämisen tueksi

Tekstinymmärtämisessä voi välillä riittää, että lukija on suurin piirtein selvillä oudon sanan merkityksestä. Useat ongelmat selviävät asiayhteydestä itsestään. Esim. jos substantiivin edellä oleva adjektiivi on lukijalle outo, se ei voi olla aivan mitä tahansa tarkoittava sana, vaan jotain, joka liittyy perässä tulevaan pääsanaan.

Ohessa ’muutamia’ englannin tapoja ilmaista erilaisia argumentoinnin suuntauksia. Joka sanalla on tietenkin oma erityismerkityksensä, joten alla olevaa sanastoa ei voi vapaasti vaihdella keskenään. Hyöty on ehkä niin päin, että kun näet tekstissä jotain tämän tyylistä sanastoa, pieni ääni takaraivossasi voisi sanoa, että’mä tiedän merkityksen suunnilleen oikealle seinälle’.

Sosiaalisessa mediassa joku sanoi, että meni usko omaan sanavarastoon, kun luki alla olevan pläjäyksen. Ei tarvitse eikä saa mennä. Englannin kielessä on valtava määrä sanoja, kuin tähtiä taivaalla. Kaikki tähdet eivät näy maan pinnalle ja silti ne ovat siellä jossain. Samalla lailla, kaikki enkun sanasto ei pyöri lukio-opiskelijan arjessa, mutta se on siellä jossain ja pulpahtelee vaikkapa ylppärien tekstinymmärtämisissä eteemme.

Tämä artikkeli EI ole tarkoitettu luettavaksi kirjoituksia edeltävänä iltana hermostuttamaan kokelasta. Tarkoitus on valaista niille, jotka luulivat tietävänsä, etteivät he tienneetkään luulevansa, että tietävät englannin kielen sanaston. Enkusta löytyy sanastotasoja, joita ei yleisessä lukio-opetuksessa voida ottaa laaja-alaisesti esille, mutta joita esiintyy tekstinymmärtämisosoissa erottelemassa porukkaa.

Meistä KUKAAN ei hallitse kaikkea tai edes suurinta osaa alla olevista listoista. Kiinnostu niistä ajan kanssa ykkösellä ja kakkosella, niin sinulla voi olla aikaa englannin kielen harrastajana omaksua niitä ja ottaa selvää sanojen nyansseista. Jollen ottaisi näitä enkun mahdollisuuksia esille jossain, tekisin lukiolaisille karhunpalveluksen antaessani teidän luulla, että koulussa esille otettava sanasto olisi suurin piirtein se, mitä englannilla on ylipäätään kenellekään tarjottavana.

Joten pitemmittä puheitta, ENJOY! 🙂

 

 

 

complicated

Byzantine  (of attitudes, etc.), complex, convoluted, elaborate, interlaced, intricate, involved, labyrinthine, difficult, involved, perplexing, problematic, puzzling, troublesome

simple

clear, easy, elementary, intelligible, lucid, manageable, plain, straightforward, uncomplicated, understandable, uninvolved classic, clean, natural, plain, Spartan, unadorned, uncluttered, unembellished, unfussy elementary, pure, single, unalloyed, unblended, uncombined, undivided, unmixed artless, childlike, frank, green, guileless, ingenuous, innocent, naive, natural, sincere, unaffected, unpretentious, unsophisticated bald, basic, direct, frank, honest, naked, plain, sincere, stark, undeniable, unvarnished homely, humble, lowly, modest, rustic, unpretentious, brainless, credulous, dense, dumb, feeble, feeble-minded, foolish, half-witted, moronic, obtuse, shallow, silly, slow, stupid, thick

insignificant

flimsy, immaterial, inconsequential, inconsiderable, irrelevant, meagre, meaningless, minor, negligible, nondescript, nonessential, not worth mentioning, nugatory, of no account, paltry, petty, scanty, trifling, trivial, unimportant, unsubstantial

important

far-reaching, grave, large, material, meaningful, momentous, of substance, primary, salient, serious, signal, significant, substantial, urgent, weighty eminent, foremost, high-level, high-ranking, influential, leading, notable, noteworthy, of note, outstanding, powerful, pre-eminent, prominent, seminal, basic, essential, of concern {or} interest, relevant, valuable, valued

increase

add to, advance, aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, build up, develop, dilate, enhance, enlarge, escalate, expand, extend, grow, heighten, inflate, intensify, magnify, mount, multiply, proliferate, prolong, raise, snowball, spread, step up, strengthen, swell, augmentation, boost, development, enlargement, escalation, expansion, extension, gain, growth, increment, intensification, rise, upsurge, upturnon the increase  developing, escalating, expanding, growing, increasing, multiplying, on the rise, proliferating, spreading

decrease

verb: abate, contract, curtail, cut down, decline, diminish, drop, dwindle, ease, fall off, lessen, lower, peter out, reduce, shrink, slacken, subside, wane noun: abatement, contraction, cutback, decline, diminution, downturn, dwindling, ebb, falling off, lessening, loss, reduction, shrinkage, subsidence

ordinary

accustomed, common, customary, established, everyday, habitual, humdrum, normal, prevailing, quotidian, regular, routine, settled, standard, stock, typical, usual, wonted ,common,garden variety, conventional, familiar, homespun, household, humble, modest, plain, prosaic, run-of-the-mill, simple, unmemorable, unpretentious, unremarkable, workaday, average, commonplace, fair, indifferent, inferior, mean, mediocre, pedestrian, second-rate, stereotyped, undistinguished, unexceptional, uninspired, unremarkable,

clear

bright, cloudless, fair, fine, halcyon, light, luminous, shining, sunny, unclouded, undimmed apparent, audible, coherent, comprehensible, conspicuous, definite, distinct, evident, explicit, express, incontrovertible, intelligible, lucid, manifest, obvious, palpable, patent, perceptible, plain, pronounced, recognizable, unambiguous, unequivocal, unmistakable, unquestionable,empty, free, open, smooth, unhampered, unhindered, unimpeded, unlimited, unobstructed, crystalline, glassy, limpid, lucid, see-through, transparent certain, convinced, decided, definite, positive, resolved, satisfied, sure, clean, guiltless, immaculate, innocent, pure, sinless, stainless, unblemished, undefiled, untarnished, untroubled

out of the ordinary

atypical, distinguished, exceptional, exciting, extraordinary, high-calibre, imaginative, important, impressive, inspired, noteworthy, outstanding, rare, remarkable, significant, special, striking, superior, uncommon, unusual

special

distinguished, especial, exceptional, extraordinary, festive, gala, important, memorable, momentous, out of the ordinary, red-letter, significant, uncommon, unique, unusual appropriate, certain, characteristic, distinctive, especial, individual, particular, peculiar, precise, specialized, specific chief, main, major, particular, primary

large

big, bulky, colossal, considerable, enormous, giant, gigantic, goodly, great, huge, immense, jumbo, king-size, man-size, massive, monumental, sizable, substantial, tidy, vast abundant, ample, broad, capacious, comprehensive, copious, extensive, full, generous, grand, grandiose, liberal, plentiful, roomy, spacious, sweeping, wide

little

diminutive, dwarf, elfin, infinitesimal, Lilliputian, mini, miniature, minute, petite, pygmy, short, slender, small, tiny, wee babyish, immature, infant, junior, undeveloped, young hardly any, insufficient, meagre, scant, skimpy, small, sparse brief, fleeting, hasty, passing, short, short-lived inconsiderable, insignificant, minor, negligible, paltry, trifling, trivial, unimportant, base, cheap, illiberal, mean, narrow-minded, petty, small-minded

new

advanced, contemporary, current, different, fresh, latest, modern, modernistic, modish, newfangled, novel, original, recent, topical, ultramodern, unfamiliar, unknown, unused, unusual, up-to-date, virgin , extra, more, supplementary altered, changed, improved, modernized, redesigned, renewed, restored

old

advanced in years, aged, ancient, decrepit, elderly, full of years, getting on in years, grey, grey-haired, grizzled, hoary, mature, over the hill, past one’s prime, patriarchal, senescent, senile, venerable antediluvian, antiquated, antique, cast-off, crumbling, dated, decayed, done, hackneyed, obsolete, old-fashioned, outdated, outmoded, out of date, passé, stale, superannuated, timeworn, unfashionable, unoriginal, worn-out aboriginal, antique, archaic, bygone, early, immemorial, of old, of yore, olden  (Archaic), original, primeval, primitive, primordial, pristine, remote, age-old, experienced, familiar, hardened, long-established, of long standing, practised, skilled, time-honoured, traditional, versed, veteran, vintage earlier, erstwhile, ex-, former, one-time, previous

recent

contemporary, current, fresh, late, latter, latter-day, modern, new, novel, present-day, up-to-date, young

useful

advantageous, all-purpose, beneficial, effective, fruitful, general-purpose, helpful, of help, of service, of use, practical, profitable, salutary, serviceable, valuable, worthwhile

useless

bootless, disadvantageous, fruitless, futile, hopeless, idle, impractical, ineffective, ineffectual, of no use, pointless, profitless, unavailing, unproductive, unworkable, vain, valueless, worthless, hopeless, incompetent, ineffectual, inept, no good, stupid, weak

essential

crucial, important, indispensable, necessary, needed, requisite, vital, basic, cardinal, constitutional, elemental, elementary, fundamental, inherent, innate, intrinsic, key, main, principal absolute, complete, ideal, perfect, quintessential, concentrated, distilled, extracted, rectified, refined, volatile basic, fundamental, must, necessity, prerequisite, principle, requisite, rudiment, sine qua non, vital part

frequent

common, constant, continual, customary, everyday, familiar, habitual, incessant, numerous, persistent, recurrent, recurring, reiterated, repeated, usual,frequent

rare

exceptional, few, infrequent, out of the ordinary, recherché, scarce, singular, sparse, sporadic, strange, thin on the ground, uncommon, unusual admirable, choice, excellent, exquisite, extreme, fine, great, incomparable, peerless, superb, superlative invaluable, precious, priceless, rich

certain

assured, confident, convinced, positive, satisfied, sure ascertained, conclusive, incontrovertible, indubitable, irrefutable, known, plain, true, undeniable, undoubted, unequivocal, unmistakable, valid bound, definite, destined, fated, ineluctable, inescapable, inevitable, inexorable, sure decided, definite, established, fixed, settled assured, constant, dependable, reliable, stable, steady, trustworthy, unfailing, unquestionable, express, individual, particular, precise, special, specific

uncertain

ambiguous, chancy, conjectural, doubtful, incalculable, indefinite, indeterminate, indistinct, questionable, risky, speculative, undetermined, unforeseeable, unpredictable ambivalent, doubtful, dubious, hazy, in two minds, irresolute, unclear, unconfirmed, undecided, undetermined, unfixed, unresolved, unsettled, unsure, up in the air, vague, changeable, erratic, fitful, hesitant, inconstant, insecure, irregular, precarious, unpredictable, unreliable, vacillating, variable, wavering

possible

conceivable, credible, hypothetical, imaginable, likely, potential attainable, doable, feasible, practicable, realizable, viable, within reach, workable hopeful, likely, potential, probable, promising

impossible

beyond one, beyond the bounds of possibility, hopeless, impracticable, inconceivable, not to be thought of, out of the question, unachievable, unattainable, unobtainable, unthinkable absurd, inadmissible, insoluble, intolerable, ludicrous, outrageous, preposterous, unacceptable, unanswerable, ungovernable, unreasonable, unsuitable, unworkable

absolute

complete, consummate, downright, entire, out-and-out, outright, perfect, pure, sheer, thorough, total, unadulterated, unalloyed, unmitigated, unmixed, unqualified, utter actual, categorical, certain, conclusive, decided, decisive, definite, exact, genuine, infallible, positive, precise, sure, unambiguous, unequivocal, unquestionable absolutist, arbitrary, autocratic, autonomous, despotic, dictatorial, full, sovereign, supreme, tyrannical, unbounded, unconditional, unlimited, unqualified, unquestionable, unrestrained, unrestricted

voluntary

discretional, free, gratuitous, honorary, intended, intentional, optional, spontaneous, uncompelled, unconstrained, unforced, unpaid, volunteer, willing

optional

discretionary, elective, extra, noncompulsory, open, possible, up to the individual, voluntary

compulsory

binding, de rigueur, forced, imperative, mandatory, obligatory, required, requisite

future

approaching, coming, destined, eventual, expected, fated, forthcoming, impending, in the offing, later, prospective, subsequent, to be, to come, ultimate, unborn

past

accomplished, completed, done, elapsed, ended, extinct, finished, forgotten, gone, over, over and done with, spent, ancient, bygone, early, erstwhile, foregoing, former, late, long-ago, olden, preceding, previous, prior, quondam, recent

powerful

energetic, mighty, potent, robust, stalwart, strapping, strong, sturdy, vigorous authoritative, commanding, controlling, dominant, influential, prevailing, puissant, sovereign, supreme, cogent, compelling, convincing, effective, effectual, forceful, forcible, impressive, persuasive, telling, weighty

quick

active, brief, brisk, cursory, expeditious, express, fast, fleet, hasty, headlong, hurried, perfunctory, prompt, rapid, speedy, sudden, swift agile, alert, animated, energetic, flying, keen, lively, nimble, spirited, sprightly, spry, vivacious, winged able, acute, adept, adroit, all there, apt, astute, bright, clever, deft, dexterous, discerning, intelligent, nimble-witted, perceptive, quick on the uptake, quick-witted, receptive, sharp, shrewd, skilful, smart abrupt, curt, excitable, hasty, impatient, irascible, irritable, passionate, petulant, testy, touchy

slow

creeping, dawdling, deliberate, easy, lackadaisical, laggard, lagging, lazy, leaden, leisurely, loitering, measured, plodding, ponderous, slow-moving, sluggardly, sluggish, tortoise-like, unhurried backward, behind, behindhand, delayed, dilatory, late, long-delayed, tardy, unpunctual gradual, lingering, long-drawn-out, prolonged, protracted, time-consuming, behind the times, boring, conservative, dead, dead-and-alive, dull, inactive, one-horse, quiet, slack, sleepy, sluggish, stagnant, tame, tedious, uneventful, uninteresting, unproductive, unprogressive, wearisome, blockish, bovine, dense, dim, dull, dull-witted, dumb, obtuse, retarded, slow on the uptake, slow-witted, stupid, thick, unresponsive,averse, disinclined, hesitant, indisposed, loath, reluctant, unwilling

definite

clear, clear-cut, clearly defined, determined, exact, explicit, express, fixed, marked, obvious, particular, precise, specific assured, certain, decided, guaranteed, positive, settled, sure

active

acting, astir, at work, doing, effectual, functioning, in action, in force, in operation, live, moving, operative, running, stirring, working bustling, busy, engaged, full, hard-working, involved, occupied, on the go, on the move, strenuous alert, animated, diligent, energetic, industrious, lively, nimble, quick, spirited, sprightly, spry, vibrant, vigorous, vital, vivacious activist, aggressive, ambitious, assertive, committed, devoted, energetic, engaged, enterprising, enthusiastic, forceful, forward, hard-working, industrious, militant, zealous

passive

acquiescent, compliant, docile, enduring, inactive, inert, lifeless, long-suffering, nonviolent, patient, quiescent, receptive, resigned, submissive, unassertive, uninvolved, unresisting

happy

blessed, blest, blissful, blithe, cheerful, content, contented, delighted, ecstatic, elated, glad, gratified, jolly, joyful, joyous, jubilant, merry, overjoyed, over the moon, pleased, sunny, thrilled, walking on air, advantageous, appropriate, apt, auspicious, befitting, convenient, enviable, favourable, felicitous, fortunate, lucky, opportune, promising, propitious, satisfactory, seasonable, successful, timely, well-timed

unhappy

blue, crestfallen, dejected, depressed, despondent, disconsolate, dispirited, down, downcast, gloomy, long-faced, melancholy, miserable, mournful, sad, sorrowful cursed, hapless, ill-fated, ill-omened, luckless, unfortunate, unlucky, wretched awkward, clumsy, gauche, ill-advised, ill-timed, inappropriate, inept, infelicitous, injudicious, malapropos, tactless, unsuitable, untactful

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