Sidosteisuutta kirjoittamiseen

Coherence = Sidosteisuus

When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily, and the writing is coherent. The ideas tie together smoothly and clearly. To establish the links that readers need, you can use the methods listed here. Note that good writers use a combination of these methods. Do not rely on and overuse any single method – especially transitional words.

 

1. Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase (= Avaintermin tai fraasin toistaminen)

This helps to focus your ideas and to keep your reader on track.

Example:

The problem with contemporary art is that it is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at.

 

2. Synonyms (= Samaa tarkoittavien sanojen käyttäminen)

Synonyms are words that have essentially the same meaning, and they provide some variety in your word choices, helping the reader to stay focused on the idea being discussed.

Example:

Myths narrate sacred histories and explain sacred origins. These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of the people who tell them.

 

3. Pronouns (= Asiaan viitataan pronominilla)

This, that, these, those, he, she, it, they, and we are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned. Be sure, however, that what you are referring to is clear.

Example:

When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Those that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards.

 

4. Transitional Words (=Linkkisanat)

There are many words in English that cue our readers to relationships between sentences, joining sentences together. See below for a table of transitional words.  There you’ll find lists of words such as however, therefore, in addition, also, but, moreover, etc.

Example:

I like autumn, and yet autumn is a sad time of the year, too. The leaves turn bright shades of red and the weather is mild, but I can’t help thinking ahead to the winter and the ice storms that will surely blow through here. In addition, that will be the season of chapped faces, too many layers of clothes to put on, and days when I’ll have to shovel heaps of snow from my car’s windshield.

Note that transitional words have meaning and are not just used at beginnings of sentences. They can also be used to show relationships between different parts of the same sentence. As mentioned above they cue readers to relationships between sentences/clauses. If you use the wrong transitional word then you confuse your reader. It would be better if you didn’t use any transitional word rather than the wrong one. Furthermore you do not need a transitional word at the beginning of each sentence. Good writers rarely use them as they achieve coherence by using other techniques. Many students overuse transitional words.

 

5. Sentence Patterns (= Lauserakenteet)

Sometimes, repeated or parallel sentence patterns can help the reader follow along and keep ideas tied together.

Example: (from a speech by President John F. Kennedy)

And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you–ask what you can do for your country.

 

6. Miscellaneous – Adverbs (lauseadverbit)may be used at the beginning of sentences to show how the sentence which follows relates to the rest of the text. Many of them reveal the writers attitude to the idea they are expressing and so can be used as an important tool in evaluative writing.

Lauseadverbit kirjoittajan tukena

Lauseadverbit
Lauseadverbit ovat voimaenglantia. Niillä voit osoittaa, miten seuraava lause liittyy muuhun kirjoittamaasi tekstiin. Ne kertovat kirjoittajan suhtautumisesta asiaansa. Niitä on englannissa helppo käyttää: ne aloittavat virkkeen ja ne erotetaan pilkulla muusta lauseyhteydestä.

Muista kuitenkin, että lauseadverbit ovat vain yksi tyylikeino muiden joukossa, joten niiden yletön käyttö ei ole suositeltavaa. Alla on listaa nopsaan opiskeluun. Quizlet-korteiksikin on joku alla olevat vääntänyt. Kiitos siitä! 🙂

Admittedly    Eittämättä
All things considered    Kaikenkaikkiaan
As a general rule    Yleensä
As far as we know    Tietääksemme
Astonishingly    Hämmästyttävästi
Broadly speaking    Yleisesti puhuen , Suurin piirtein
By and large    Suurin piirtein , Yleensä
Characteristically    Tyypillisesti
Clearly    Selvästi
Coincidentally    Sattumalta
Conveniently    Mukavasti , Sopivasti , Haitatta
Curiously    Kummallista kyllä
Disappointingly    Pettymykseksi
Equally    Samalla tavoin , Samoin
Essentially    Pääasiallisesti , Pohjimmiltaan
Explicitly    Nimenomaisesti ; Täsmällisesti
Even so    Silti , Siitä huolimatta
Eventually    Lopulta , Vihdoin
Fortunately    Onneksi
Fundamentally    Pohjimmiltaan , Perusolemukseltaan
Furthermore    Edelleen , Sen lisäksi
Generally speaking    Ylipäänsä , Yleensä
Interestingly    Kiinnostavaa kyllä
Ironically    On kohtalon ivaa , Ivallisesti
In essence    Varsinaisesti , Pohjimmiltaan
In general    Yleensä , Tavallisesti
In particular    Erityisesti , Nimenomaan
In practice    Käytännössä
In reality    Todellisuudessa
In retrospect/hindsight    Jälkeenpäin ajatellen
Interestingly    Mikä mielenkiintoista
In theory    Teoriassa
In view of this    Huomioonottaen , Silmälläpitäen
Naturally    Luonnollisesti
On balance    Kaiken kaikkiaan
Obviously    Ilmiselvästi
On reflection    Asiaa tarkemmin harkittuani
Overall    Yleensä ottaen , Kaiken kaikkiaan
Paradoxically    On ristiriitaista, että
Potentially    Mahdollisesti
Predictably    Ennustusten mukaan , Kuten saattoi olettaa
Presumably    Oletettavasti , Luultavasti
Primarily    Enimmäkseen , Pääasiallisesti
Probably    Todennäköisesti
Remarkably    Huomattavan , Aivan erityisen
Seemingly    Nähtävästi . Kaikesta päättäen
Seriously    Vakavasti ottaen , Tosissaan
Significantly    Mikä on merkittävää
Specifically    Nimenomaan , Täsmällisesti
Surprisingly    Yllättäen , Ihme kyllä
Theoretically    Teoriassa
To all intents and purposes    Itse asiassa , Käytännölliesti katsoen
Typically    Tyypillisesti
Ultimately    Lopulta , Vime kädessä
Understandably    Ymmärrettävästi
Undoubtedly    Epäilemättä
Unfortunately    Valitettavasti
With hindsight    Jälkeenpäin ajatellen , Näin jälkiviisaana

 

Admittedly

All things considered

As a general rule

As far as we know

Astonishingly

Broadly

By and large

Characteristically

Clearly

Coincidentally

Conveniently

Curiously

Disappointingly

Equally

Essentially

Explicitly

Even so

Eventually

Fortunately

Fundamentally

Generally speaking

Interestingly

Ironically

In essence

In general

In particular

In practice

In reality

In retrospect/hindsight

In theory

In view of this

More interestingly

More seriously

More specifically

Naturally

On balance

Obviously

On reflection

Overall

Paradoxically

Potentially

Predictably

Presumably

Primarily

Probably

Remarkably

Seemingly

Significantly

Surprisingly

Theoretically

To all intents and purposes

Typically

Ultimately

Understandably

Undoubtedly

Unfortunately

With hindsight

Transitional Words        Linkkisanoja

Addition

again

also

and

and then

besides

equally

further(more)

in addition (to…)

indeed

next

in fact

moreover

too

what is more

finally

Comparison

compared with

in comparison with

in the same way/manner

similarly

likewise

again

also

Contrast

besides

but

however

in contrast

instead

conversely

it may be the case that

certainly

also

likewise

naturally

nevertheless

of course

on the contrary

on the other hand

regardless

granted

like

different from

Alternatively

still

whereas

while

yet

although

despite

it is true that

notwithstanding

Enumeration

first(ly) secondly etc.

finally

in the (first) place

last

to (begin) with

more important

on top of (that)

next

then

Concession

although it is true that

it may appear

regardless

certainly

granted that

naturally

it is true  that

I admit that

of course

it may be the case that

Exemplification

as (evidence of…)

for example

for instance

thus

to illustrate

such as

to show what (I mean)

specifically

let us (take the case of…)

Inference

if not, …

in (that) case

otherwise

that implies

then

Summary/Conclusion

in all

in brief

to summarise

in summary

in short

in conclusion

therefore

In a nutshell

on the whole

to sum up

basically

Time and Sequence

after (a while)

afterwards

at first

at last

at (the same time)

while

first , second, third…

thereafter

concurrently

soon

as soon as

before (that time)

finally

in the end

meanwhile

next

immediately

next

firstly , secondly, thirdly…

in the future

subsequently

at that time

since (then)

so far

then

(up to) (then)

later

somewhat earlier

shortly

over the next (2 days)

as long as

last

Result

accordingly

as a result

consequently

since

as a consequence of…

caused

accordingly

for that reason

hence

thus

if…then…

…result(s) in …

contribute to

In consequence

then

therefore

the ( consequence ) of that is…

…is due to…

brought about by/because…

lead to…

Reformulation

in other words

rather

Briefly

put simply

that is (to say)

to put it more (simply)

basically

Replacement

again

alternatively

(better) still

on the other hand

the alternative is…

Transition

as far as … is concerned

as for …

incidentally

now

to turn to…

with ( reference) to

with regard to…

Concerning…

Place/Position

above

beyond

in the back

nearby

elsewhere

opposite to

behind

adjacent

here

near

there

far

to the left

below

in front

there

closer to

farther on

to the right

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