ProFiles 7 Alleviivaukset kommentoituna

P7 T1 Environmental Q & A         Find the following phrases in the text and write them here. KEY

tehdä hätiköity johtopäätös                       to jump to the conclusion

  • to conclude – päätellä

ovat suorassa yhteydessä                              are directly related to

tutkimusta on tehty                                       research has been conducted

  • tätä tarvitaan paljon

serotoniinin puute                                         a lack of serotonin

  • to lack X – puuttua , lack of X  – puute jstkn


hatara yhteys                                               a tenuous link between

mainiten tapauksia, joissa …                       citing cases where

  • vrt. ‘siteerata’

Vielä ei tiedetä varmasti                              The jury is still out on


on enemmän kuin pinnallinen vaikutus    has more than a superficial effect on

  • vastakohta: profound                           syvällinen
  • He’s so superficial or shallow!           pinnallinen tyyppi


muutaman viime vuoden aikana                during the last few years

  • in the past couple of years
  • in a few years’ time
  • in future ‘jatkossa’  / in the future ‘tulevaisuudessa’
  • in a month or two
  • in an hour give or take a few minutes


ovat erittäin tärkeitä                                  are of paramount importance


johtuen siitä, että                                        on account of the fact that

  • due to the fact that


voimme heittää hyvästit                              we can kiss goodbye to

On pari olettamusta                                      There are a couple of hypotheses

  • pari kolme a couple of                         pitää tietää ylppäreissä, on kysytty


ovat yhtäkkiä vähenemään päin                are suddenly on the decrease

  • vastakohta: on the increase
  • to decrease / to increase


seurauksena jstkn                                       as a consequence of

  • The upshot was that …                        tulos oli se, että

geenimuunnellut ruuat                                 genetically modified foods

  • GM food

Jotkut väittävät, että                                     Some argue that

  • to argue                                                väittää / riidellä
  • an argument                                         väite / riita
  • No argument there.                               Ei epäselvyyttä asiassa.

lyhentäen niiden elinikää                             reducing their lifespan

  • attention span / concentration span / memory span / wingspan


jos mehiläiset kuolevat sukupuuttoon       if bees die out

  • to die out = to become extinct
  • extinction

olisi pienimpiä huoliamme                          would be the least of our worries

  • opettele


mitä suurimmassa määrin                          to a large extent

suoraan ja epäsuorasti                                  directly and indirectly

  • hyviä käyttösanoja ja merkitykset aikalailla samat enkussa ja suomen kielessä


missä sitä oli niukasti                                  where it was in short supply

  • supplies                                                tarvikkeet
  • taloudessa: demand / supply               kysyntä/tarjonta


ottaa huomioon                                            to take into account

  • to take into consideration


ympäristöystävällisellä tavalla                   in an environmentally-friendly fashion

  • fashion on myös tapa, ei ainoastaan muoti

Viimeisenä muttei vähäisimpänä                 Last but not least

  • opettele


ei kannata                                                    there’s no point in

  • it’s no use + -ing                                  Preposition jälkeen aina –ING-muoto seuraavaan verbiin.


antaa katteettomia lupauksia                     paying lip service to

  • tai sitten: to make promises that you can’t keep Joo, mutta idiomaattisempia ilmaisuja löytyy.


kestävä kehitys                                            sustainable development

  • Opettele tämä tärkeä käsite.

P7 T2 Anita Roddick Radical by nature     Find the following phrases in the text and write them here.     KEY

luonteetaan                                                 by nature

Sanontoja, joissa on BY:

•   (all) by herself

  • •(all) by himself

    •(all) by yourself

    •(by) courtesy of

    •(by) miles

    •(off) by heart

    •a baptism of/by fire

    •A good time was had by all.

    •American/Italian, etc. by birth

    •be all right/fine by sb

    •be conspicuous by your absence

    •be consumed by/with sth

    •be devoured by sth

    •be hoist(ed) with/by your own petard

    •be in a class by itself/of its own

    •be past your sell-by date

    •be ruled by sb

    •be too clever by half

    •bit by bit

    •by (sheer) force/weight of numbers

    •by a factor of

    •by a nose

    •by a process of elimination

    •by a whisker

    •by accident

    •by all means

    •by and by

    •by and large

    •by any chance

    •by appointment

    •by common consent

    •by definition

    •by degrees

    •by design

    •by dint of sth

    •by fair means or foul

    •by far and away

    •By gum!

    •by hook or by crook

    •by inches

    •by mistake

    •by nature/profession/trade, etc.

    •by no means

    •by no stretch of the imagination

    •by numbers

    •by reason of

    •by reputation

    •by return (of post)

    •by return mail, at by return (of post)

    •by right of

    •by rights

    •by the grace of God

    •by the look of it, at by the look(s) of things

    •by the look(s) of things

    •by the name of sth

    •by the numbers, at by numbers

    •by the same token

    •by the score

    •by the scruff of the/your neck

    •by the seat of your pants

    •by the skin of your teeth

    •by the way

    •by this time

    •by turns, at in turn

    •by way of

    •by virtue of

    •by word of mouth

    •by your own account

    •by/from all accounts

    •by/in leaps and bounds

    •by/on your lonesome

    •cheek by jowl

    •come by (somewhere)

    •day by day

    •death by misadventure

    •divide sth by sth

    •Do as you would be done by.

    •do well/badly by sb

    •eaten up with/by sth

    •fall by the wayside

    •feel hard done-by

    •go by the board

    •go by the book/do sth by the book

    •go by the name of sth

    •hang by a thread

    •happen along/by (somewhere)

    •have (got) sb by the short and curlies

    •have (got) sb by the short hairs, at have (got) sb by the short and curlies

    •have sb by the balls

    •in days gone by

    •in/by fits and starts

    •inch by inch

    •item by item

    •judging by/from

    •know sb by name

    •know sb by sight

    •lead sb by the nose

    •learn sth by rote

    •little by little

    •live by your wits

    •Man cannot live by bread alone.

    •more by accident than design

    •more by luck than judgment

    •not by a long chalk/shot

    •not by any manner of means

    •not by any means, at by no means

    •not by any stretch of the imagination, at by no stretch of the imagination

    •not do things by halves

    •one by one

    •people sth/somewhere by/with sb

    •play sth by ear

    •pull/haul yourself up by your bootstraps

    •Saved by the bell.

    •set great/little, etc. store by sth

    •shake sb’s hand/shake sb by the hand

    •shave sth by sth, at shave sth off sth

    •side by side

    •stand or fall by sth

    •step by step

    •stick by sth/sb

    •stop by (somewhere)

    •take sb by surprise, at take sb unawares

    •take sb/sth by storm

    •take the bull by the horns

    •taken with/by sth

    •to judge by/from, at judging by/from

    •watch the world go by

    •week by week

    •without so much as a by-your-leave

    •You can’t judge a book by its cover.

Lähdettyään Napolista                                 Having left Naples

  • ’tehtyään jotain’ = having + 3. muoto / after + -ING-muoto
  • pitää tietää


ansaitsivat elantonsa                                  made a living

  • myös: to earn a living
  • earn-verbillä ansaitaan myös rahaa ja kyseenalaista mainetta: to earn money / to earn a reputation mutta eipä juuri muuta

nuorella Anitalla oli tapana työskennellä   the young Anita would work

  • Mikä Anita? Nuori Anita. Pääsanaa verrataan itseensä eri aikoina. Erisnimikin voi siis saada määräisen artikkelin.

hän muisteli                                                 she recalled

  • ei tarvi aina olla remember

Valmistuttuaan koulusta                              After leaving school

  • tätä siis kysytään usein ylppäreissä (after + ing-muoto / having + 3.muoto) ’tehtyään jotain’

Eurooppa kiihotti hänen matkustushaluaan   Europe whetted her appetite for further travel

  • whet-verbillä kiihotetaan ruokahalua (tms.) ja teroitetaan veistä,  to whet a knife


painaen mieleensa kauneusrituaaleja      making a mental note of ethnic beauty rituals

  • Itselle puhuttuna: Note to self: Don’t forget her birthday ever again!

heti kun he olivat menneet naimisiin          no sooner had they got married

  • kielteinen tai rajoittava määre lauseen alussa tuo enkussa käänteisen sanajärjestyksen
  • enkun päälauseet ja sivulauseet ovat siis periaatteessa suoria ja käänteisyyttä esiintyy kysymyslauseessa ja tuossa em. tapauksessa
  • Kova hyökkäyskolmikko ensin: SUBJEKTI, PREDIKAATTI, OBJEKTI
  • Puolustuksen takalinjoilla määreet: TAPA, PAIKKA, AIKA
  • Ajan määre voi myös aloittaa lauseen, jos se on isomman sortin määre
  • liikkuva määre (often, never, seldom, always …) on
    • yksiosaisen verbin edessä: I never tease my little sister.
    • paitsi jos verbi on olla: Jane is never late for class.
    • moniosaisilla verbiosilla eka osan perään: Robert has often played truant.
    • objektiivi ‘Kenelle?’ voidaan hoidella kahdella tavalla:
      • I bought my girlfriend some roses.
      • I ‘m going to give them to her tonight.

hän halusi toteuttaa lapsuudenunelmansa  he wanted to fulfil a childhood dream


ajatus omasta kosmetiikkayrityksestä      the idea of setting up her own cosmetics business

vastahakoinen … vastahakoisuus                reluctant  … reluctance

  • vastakohta: willing … willingness


juonsi juurensa siitä tosiasiasta, että        stemmed from the fact that


hänen boheemin ulkonäkönsä perusteella  judging by her bohemian appearance

vaatimaton valikoima tuotteita                   a modest range of products

hänen uusien yritystilojensa seinät              the walls of her new premises

  • premises ‘tilat’ aina monikollinen: There’s no smoking on these premises.


oli juuri saamassa jalansijaa                     was just starting to gain ground

  • to get your foot in the door                ‘saada jalka ovenrakoon’

hyvin halukkaasti                                         with gusto

  • with zeal / zealously

heidän ensimmäinen kauppansa ulkomailla   their first overseas store

  • to go overseas / to be overseas
  • to go abroad / to be abroad
  • a foreign country , a foreigner

Loppu, kuten sanotaan, on historiaa.           The rest, as they say, is history

  • näinhän mekin sanomme

ympäristötietoisuus                                      environmental consciousness

  • opettele
  • to be conscious of X
  • unconscious = tajuton , ei tietoinen
  • conscious = tajuissaan, tietoinen
  • I have a clean conscience = omatunto
  • Peter is a conscientious student. = tunnollinen

kun se perustettiin 70-luvulla                      when it was founded back in the seventies

  • back in the day = ennenvanhaan

monella tavalla                                            by a number of means


Ensi töikseen                                               First off


hän piti tärkeänä hankkia                         she made a point of sourcing

alkuperäisheimot                                         indigenous tribes

köyhdytetyt maanviljelijät                          impoverished farmers

Kauan ennen kuin kierrätys oli yleinen käytäntö         Long before recycling was the done thing

  • to be the done thing

täytettäväksi                                                 to be refilled

  • huomaa passiivin perusmuoto. to refill / to be refilled

tarpeeton pakkausmateriaali                        superfluous packaging

  • superficial / shallow = pinnallinen (luonteeltaan, mielipiteiltään …)


he tekivät oman osuutensa                         they were also doing their bit


Tuotemerkillä oli olennainen osa              The brand played an integral part in

pyöritellen peukaloitaan                              twiddling her thumbs

  • twiddle on sellaista rekisteriä, ettei sitä omana verbinään opeteta vaan osana tällaista fraasia,
  • you can twiddle your finger, twiddle knobs and twiddle your thumbs and that’s it


olivat kärkkäitä hylkäämään                    who were quick to dismiss

ansaitsi kieltämättä paljon rahaa                 was undeniably raking it in

sosiaalinen epäoikeudenmukaisuus             social injustice


jotka olivat uskoneet BS:n moraalikäsitykseen        who had bought into The Body Shop ethos

  • I won’t buy that!                                  Tuota mää en usko.

syyttivät Roddickia periaatteidensa myymisestä          accused Roddick of selling .. her principles


hän näki paljon vaivaa lisätäkseen tietoisuutta         she went out of her way to raise awareness

  • to go out of your way to do sthng= to bend over backwards to do sthng

hän sai kohtalokkaan aivoverenvuodon      she suffered a fatal brain haemorrhage

  • haemorrhoids = peräpukamat
  • The Lord said: “Suffer children come unto me.” Sallikaa lasten …

P7 T3 I’ve got a solution for the rainforest: NAPALM THE LOT    Find the following phrases in the text and write them here. KEY


mitä nopeammin … sitä parempi               the sooner  … the better

  • ei näin: whatthat

Erään kerran                                                 At one point

aiheutti eniten ärtymystä                             caused the most annoyance

  • to be annoyed with X
  • Picking your nose isan annoying habit.


Ne olivat tarpeeksi suuria                          They were big enough

  • enough enkussa pääsanansa jäljessä

Vannon, että kuulin                                     I swear to God I heard

  • OMG! Oh My God!                            Enkun yleisin taivastelutermi.


Niiden tuleen sytyttäminen                        Setting them alight

  • to alight = nousta pois kulkuneuvosta
  • Metrossa: Alight here for Hyde Park. Poistu täällä päästäksesi Hyde Parkkiin.
  • Metrossa: Mind the gap!
  • Metrossa: Change here for Bakerloo Line.

erityisen itsepäinen torakka                         a particularly stubborn cockroach


telttani syttyi palamaan                             my tent caught fire

  • Q: Ope, mitä on ’syttyä’ enkuksi?
  • A: Misä nää sitä käytät? (Ei ole yhtä ainoaa vastausta, vaihtelee käyttötarkoituksen mukaan. Siksi opettelemme fraaseja)
  • En syty tälle asialle.                             This is not my cup of tea.

on hyönteiskurjuuden sietämisen arvoista  it’s worth putting up with the insect misery

lukuun ottamatta                                          apart from


Erityisesti yksi puu kiinnitti huomioni     One tree in particular caught my eye

  • Taas tuo catch! Alla sanontoja, joissa tuo verbi on:
    • ◦catch fire

      ◦catch the sun

      ◦catch the light

      ◦catch some rays, at catch a few rays

      ◦catch a few rays

      ◦catch/get pneumonia

      ◦if you catch/get my drift

      ◦See/Catch you later.

      ◦catch/cop/get some z’s

      ◦catch your breath

      ◦catch/get sb’s drift

      ◦catch sb red-handed

      ◦catch someone’s attention/imagination/interest, etc.

      ◦catch sb’s eye

      ◦catch sb napping

      ◦get/attract/catch sb’s attention

      ◦you won’t catch sb doing sth

      ◦catch sb off guard

      ◦catch sb on the hop

      ◦It takes a thief to catch a thief.


      •catch/get/grab/take hold of sth/sb

      •catch your death of cold

      •catch sb on the wrong foot

      •catch sb with their      pants/trousers down



Suoraan sanoen                                          Frankly


olet selvillä vesillä                                       you are out of the woods

  • Myös: He’s out of the woods.             Pahin on ohi (sairaasta henkilöstä).


niin sanoakseni                                           so to speak

välivuosi-Brittejä rastakiharoineen             gap-year Brits with dreadlocked hair

On velvollisuutemme auttaa                        It is our duty to help

P7 T4 Doomsday Tourism: Seeing It Before You Can’t Find the following phrases in the text and write them here. KEY

Olipa asenteesi mikä tahansa                         No matter what your position


ilmaston lämpeneminen                                  global warming

  • opettele

todennäköisesti johtuen                                    probably due to

Viime vuosina                                                  In the last few years

  • mutta: last year / next year (ei prepositiota eikä artikkelia)
  • in future = jatkossa (siis tästä eteenpäin)
  • in the future = tulevaisuudessa (epämääräisessä tulevaisuudessa)
  • in a couple of months
  • in a week or two
  • in 18 months give or take a month

ei koskaan enää nähdä                                      never to be seen

  • kaunis passiivin perusmuoto

eivät voi käsitellä niitä turistimääriä               can’t handle the numbers of tourists

  • to handle X = to cope with X = to manage X


myöntää virheitämme                                     to admit our mistakes

  • to make mistakes
  • Alla make-pohjaisia sanontoja:
    • ◦make amends

      ◦make believe

      ◦make excuses

      ◦make headway

      ◦make inroads

      ◦make do

      ◦make for somewhere/sth

      ◦make sth over to sb

      ◦make good

      ◦make love

      ◦make like

      ◦make time

      ◦make the bed

      ◦make a break

      ◦make the break, / make a break

      ◦make free with

      ◦make an offer

      ◦make haste

      ◦make history

      ◦make noises

      ◦make tracks

      ◦make waves

      ◦make whoopee

      ◦make sure (that)

      ◦make it big

      ◦make mischief

      ◦make a move

      ◦make a pile

      ◦make allowance for

      ◦make allowances for

      ◦make an exception

      ◦make/pull a face

      ◦make certain/sure

      ◦make a bundle

      ◦make a noise, / make noises

      ◦make no odds

      ◦make a splash

      ◦make a beeline for

      ◦make room/space/way

      ◦make the first move

      ◦make conversation

      ◦make ends meet

      ◦make good time

      ◦make the grade

      ◦make a killing

      ◦make it snappy

      ◦make a (big) difference

      ◦not make any difference

      ◦make all the difference, / make a (big) difference

      ◦to make matters worse

      ◦make the best of

      ◦make the fur fly

      ◦make legal history

      ◦be on the make

      ◦make/take a note

      ◦make it a rule

      ◦make/take soundings

      ◦make matters worse

      ◦make a break (from/for)

      ◦Do I make myself clear?

      ◦make/do the rounds

      ◦are/make a hit with

      ◦make an honest living

      ◦Don’t make me laugh!

      ◦make it (to the top)

      ◦make (all) the running

      ◦not make the slightest difference, / not make any difference

      ◦make sth known

      ◦make up for lost time

      ◦make no mistake about it

      ◦make your excuses

      ◦make a fool of sb

      ◦make a go of sth

      ◦make your gorge rise

      ◦make a hash of sth

      ◦make sb’s life hell

      ◦make light of sth

      ◦make a mess of sth

      ◦make a pass at sb

      ◦make use of sth

      ◦make sb welcome

      ◦make a clean breast of it

      ◦make a world of difference

      ◦make fun of sb/sth

      ◦make life hell for sb, / make sb’s life hell

      ◦make an issue of sth

      ◦make the most of sth

      ◦do/make sth to order

      ◦make a practice of sth

      ◦make provision for sth

      ◦make sb’s day

      ◦Make hay while the sun shines.

      ◦make sb sweat

      ◦make the world go around/round

      ◦Two wrongs don’t make a right.

      ◦make a bolt for somewhere

      ◦make common cause with sb

      ◦make a fool of yourself

      ◦make a fuss of/over sb

      ◦make a mental note of sth

      ◦make a nuisance of yourself

      ◦make a takeover bid for sth

      ◦You can’t make bricks without straw.

      ◦make eyes at sb

      ◦make love to sb

      ◦make it with sb

      ◦make to do sth

      ◦make a mountain out of a molehill

      ◦make the ultimate/supreme sacrifice

      ◦make sth stick

      ◦One swallow doesn’t make a summer.

      ◦make way for sth, / give way to sth

      ◦make a new life for yourself, / start a new life

      ◦make light work of sth/doing sth

      ◦make sb do sth

      ◦make your blood boil

      ◦if I may be/make so bold (as to)

      ◦make a case for sth

      ◦make sb’s blood curdle

      ◦make a hole in sth

      ◦make yourself at home

      ◦make a joke of sth

      ◦make yourself known

      ◦make little of sth

      ◦make sb look small

      ◦make a day/night/evening/weekend of it

      ◦make it up to sb

      ◦make or break sth

      ◦make mincemeat of sb

      ◦make up your mind

      ◦make your mind up, / make up your mind

      ◦make sb’s mouth water

      ◦make a muck of sth

      ◦make (all) the right/correct, etc. noises

      ◦make yourself respectable

      ◦make yourself scarce

      ◦make sb’s skin crawl

      ◦It takes all sorts (to make a world).

      ◦put two and two together and make five

      ◦make yourself understood

      ◦make yourself useful

      ◦make enough/much/more, etc. of sth

      ◦make an ass of yourself

      ◦make your blood run cold

      ◦make no bones about sth

      ◦make capital out of sth

      ◦make out a case for sth, / make a case for sth

      ◦make no claim to be sth

      ◦make/put a dent in sth

      ◦make your flesh crawl/creep

      ◦make your heart flutter

      ◦make (sb’s) hackles rise

      ◦make sb’s hair stand on end

      ◦make heavy weather of sth

      ◦make an impression on sb

      ◦Do you want to make something/anything of it?

      ◦make as if to do sth

      ◦make much/a lot of sb

      ◦make a man (out) of sb

      ◦make a meal (out) of sth

      ◦make a mockery of sth

      ◦make a monkey out of sb

      ◦make a name for yourself

      ◦make a noise about sth

      ◦make (a) nonsense of sth

      ◦make a pig of yourself

      ◦make a pig’s ear of sth

      ◦make a play for sth/sb

      ◦make a point of doing sth

      ◦make your presence felt

      ◦make short work of sth

      ◦make short shrift of sth

      ◦make a spectacle of yourself

      ◦have/make a stab at sth

      ◦make a virtue (out) of sth

      ◦make an exhibition of yourself

      ◦can’t make head nor tail of sth

      ◦do/make a good/bad job of sth

      ◦make sth up as you go along

      ◦be make or break for sb/sth

      ◦You can’t make an omelette without breaking eggs.

      ◦make a production (out) of sth

      ◦make a rod for your own back

      ◦You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear.

      ◦make a song and dance about sth

      ◦make a big thing (out) of sth

      ◦make an honest woman (out) of sb

      ◦You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.

      ◦make a/your mark (on sth)

      ◦make sth (all) your own

      ◦make representations/a representation to sb/sth

      ◦make sth/it worth your while


  • Pannaan sammaan rahhaan do-pohjaisia sanontoja:
    • ◦do time

      ◦do for sb/sth

      ◦do yourself in

      ◦do without (sth)

      ◦do it

      ◦do away with sth

      ◦do away with sb

      ◦do a ton

      ◦conspire to do sth , at conspire against sth

      ◦do sth for sb/sth

      ◦do sb out of sth

      ◦do a bunk

      ◦fair do’s, at Fair’s fair

      ◦do a wash

      ◦do bird

      ◦make do

      ◦condemn sb to (do) sth

      ◦sit down and do sth

      ◦to do with

      ◦do battle

      ◦do nicely

      ◦look to sb to do sth

      ◦Do you mind?

      ◦do or die

      ◦That’ll do!

      ◦a rum do

      ◦how do you do

      ◦do the job

      ◦do a runner

      ◦do’s and don’ts

      ◦do a double take

      ◦How do you mean?

      ◦do you hear?

      ◦That will do.

      ◦do the trick

      ◦How do you do?

      ◦do the drying (up), / dry the dishes

      ◦do the business

      ◦do the honours

      ◦do/work wonders

      ◦what do you bet?

      ◦do the full monty

      ◦What do you mean?

      ◦that’ll do nicely

      ◦the thing to do, / the done thing

      ◦Do I make myself clear?

      ◦That will never do!

      ◦do a good/bad job

      ◦do a moonlight flit

      ◦That will never do.

      ◦do a roaring trade

      ◦make/do the rounds

      ◦a must-do/-have/-see, etc.

      ◦be a pig to do/play, etc.

      ◦Do me/us a favour!

      ◦not the thing to do, / not the done thing

      ◦be better able to do something

      ◦do you good

      ◦do (all) the donkey work

      ◦not do things by halves

      ◦do more harm than good

      ◦(Well) what do you know!

      ◦I don’t mind if I do

      ◦be able to do sth

      ◦do/try your best

      ◦sb would do better

      ◦come to do sth

      ◦do your damnedest

      ◦deign to do sth

      ◦disdain to do sth

      ◦elect to do sth

      ◦grow to do sth

      ◦know how to do sth

      ◦not do sth lightly

      ◦be like to do sth

      ◦be loath to do sth

      ◦be made to do sth

      ◦neglect to do sth

      ◦have no option (but to do something)

      ◦proceed to do sth

      ◦be quick to do sth

      ◦remember to do sth

      ◦be wont to do sth

      ◦What are you going to do?

      ◦it’s the least I can do

      ◦When in Rome (do as the Romans do).

      ◦be about to do sth

      ◦condescend to do sth

      ◦constrained to do sth

      ◦be disposed to do sth

      ◦do well/badly by sb

      ◦do (sb) a good turn

      ◦have (got) to do sth

      ◦be looking to do sth

      ◦be no need to do sth

      ◦not be one to do sth

      ◦do/make sth to order

      ◦be at pains to do sth

      ◦be pleased to do sth

      ◦be prepared to do sth

      ◦not pretend to do sth

      ◦be programmed to do sth

      ◦be raring to do sth

      ◦not scruple to do sth

      ◦be unable to do sth

      ◦be willing (to do sth)

      ◦do a disappearing/vanishing act

      ◦Do bears shit in the woods?

      ◦Do as you would be done by.

      ◦do your nut

      ◦do sb proud

      ◦do your stuff

      ◦do your worst

      ◦be duty bound to do sth

      ◦be gagging for/to do sth

      ◦be going to do/be sth

      ◦can ill afford (to do sth)

      ◦be at liberty to do sth

      ◦be prone to sth/do sth

      ◦be (hard) pushed to do sth

      ◦be reported to be/do sth

      ◦(how much) do you want to bet?

      ◦what do you bet?/the betting is, / what’s the betting?

      ◦do sb’s head in

      ◦the hell you do

      ◦do your homework

      ◦itch to do sth

      ◦make to do sth

      ◦only to do sth

      ◦do sb a service

      ◦A man’s gotta do what a man’s gotta do.

      ◦be/feel disinclined to do sth

      ◦be in no fit state to do sth

      ◦be/feel honour bound to do sth

      ◦make sb do sth

      ◦be/have nothing to do with sb

      ◦be in a position to do sth

      ◦there isn’t a thing you can do

      ◦do as you think best

      ◦do sth for a bet

      ◦do sth on a bet, / do sth for a bet

      ◦could do with sth

      ◦do sb’s dirty work

      ◦do the dirty on sb

      ◦do yourself an injury

      ◦What more do you want – jam on it?

      ◦do justice to sb/sth

      ◦do sb/sth justice, / do justice to sb/sth

      ◦do justice to yourself

      ◦do yourself justice, / do justice to yourself

      ◦do your level best

      ◦How do you like…?

      ◦I need hardly do sth

      ◦do a number on sb

      ◦be ready to do sth

      ◦do your own thing

      ◦do/try your utmost

      ◦sb had better do sth

      ◦do your family/parents/teacher, etc. credit

      ◦defy sb to do sth

      ◦do sth about sth

      ◦sb/sth needn’t do sth

      ◦sb needn’t do sth

      ◦be/have nothing to do with sb/sth

      ◦go to/take great pains to do sth

      ◦do sth at your peril

      ◦prompt sb to do sth

      ◦be all (that) you can do

      ◦be dying for/to do sth

      ◦not do sb any favours

      ◦had better/best do sth

      ◦it never hurts to do sth

      ◦be in line to do sth

      ◦Do you want to make something/anything of it?

      ◦make as if to do sth

      ◦be man enough to do sth

      ◦do sb/yourself a mischief

      ◦as much as you can do

      ◦have occasion to do sth

      ◦do sb a power of good

      ◦I’ll thank you to do sth

      ◦do sb the world of good

      ◦have the decency/good sense, etc. to do sth

      ◦long for sth; long to do sth

      ◦not have the heart to do sth

      ◦do/make a good/bad job of sth

      ◦know better (than to do sth)

      ◦have/take a notion to do sth

      ◦do sb the honour of doing sth

      ◦go by the book/do sth by the book

      ◦not bring yourself to do something

      ◦do something/nothing, etc. for/to sb

      ◦pluck up (the) courage to do sth, / pluck up your courage

      ◦Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.

      ◦be/have something to do with sth

      ◦be apt to do sth/be apt to be sth

      ◦do sth off your own bat

      ◦have half a mind/a good mind to do sth

      ◦would not do sth for all the tea in China

      ◦Trust sb (to do sth)!

      ◦find it in your heart to do sth

      ◦take it into your head to do sth

      ◦it wouldn’t hurt you to do sth

      ◦be in no mood for sth/to do sth

      ◦not put it past sb (to do sth)

      ◦act/do sth on your own responsibility

      ◦can’t do sth to save your life

      ◦could do sth in their sleep

      ◦be damned if you do and damned if you don’t

      ◦could do sth with one arm/hand tied behind their back

      ◦sb could do sth with their eyes closed/shut



voimakas lisääntyminen                                 a huge surge in

yksi osoitus niiden suosiosta                            one of the indicators of their popularity

vahingoittavat jo haurasta ekosysteemiä         damage the already fragile natural ecosystem

viitenä viime vuotena                                       in the past five years

Huolimatta siitä, että monet yhtiöt                  Despite many companies

  •  = in spite of X / despite X
  • X notwithstanding (ei niin käyttökelpoinen kuin nuo kaksi muuta)

on vieläkin enemmän kysyntää                        there is still more demand from

  • demand = kysyntä
  • suppy = tarjonta
  • wholesale / retail = tukkukauppa / vähittäismyynti
  • RRP eli recommended retail price = suositushinta
  • vs. street price eli tuolla hinnalla se luultavasti lähtee


on uhattuna lämpötilan noususta johtuen    is under threat due to rising temperatures

voisi tuhoutua täysin vuoteen 2025 mennessä could be completely devastated by 2025

  • by the year 2025 on toinen vaihtoehto mutta miksi olla monisanainen?


ovat alttiita samanlaiselle kohtalolle             prone to a similar fate

  • to be accident prone = onnettomuusaltis, aina vaikeuksissa


ovat vaarassa                                                   are at risk

  • are in danger (of + -ing)


kun ne ovat vielä parhaimmillaan                 while they’re still in their prime

  • prime time = paras (TV-)katseluaika
  • prime suspect = pääepäilty
  • prime minister
  • Ns. absoluuttinen superlatiivi:Summer is at its best in July. ‘parhaimmillan (itseensä verrattuna)

ja mitä niitä onkaan                                          you name it

jotka aidosti yrittävät auttaa                             who are genuinely trying to help

  • genuine = aito / fake = väärennös

vihreillä käytänteillä                                        through green practices

  • Practice what you preach!                     Tee niin kuin sanot!


Epävirallisesti                                                  Off the record

  • official / unofficial = virallinen / epävirallinen
  • +ly  -sti
  • to be in office = olla virassa                     (in the office = toimistossa)
  • the officials = viranomaiset

ihmisen luonnollinen itsekkyys                        the natural human selfishness

on vaikeahko pulma                                         is a bit of a dilemma


niissä ihmisissä herätetty tietoisuus              the awareness raised in those people

  • to be aware of X / unaware of X

kun harkitsemme tulevia matkasuunnitelmiamme       when we’re considering our future travel plans

  • to consider X Y / to regard X as Y
  • to see X as Y
  • As far as X is concerned / As for X / As to X / Xwise (moneywise, weatherwise) /
  • As regards X

P7 T5 Noise pollution – an underrated environmental problem          Find the following phrases in the text and write them here. KEY


Kaukana ovat päivät                                       Long gone are the days

  • in living memory = miesmuistiin

niin paljon kuin mahdollista                           as much as possible


he todellakin jäävät paitsi                             they are really missing out on

tinnituksesta johtuen                                       due to tinnitus


maata ei ollut näkyvissä                                there was no land in sight

  • to lose sight of X = menettää näköyhteys

Se oli aikamoinen kokemus                            It was quite an experience

  • rather/quite:
  • a rather nice holiday / rather a nice holiday
  • a quite expensive smartphone / quite an expensive smartphone
  • kaksi mahdollista artikkelin paikkaa noilla, jos adj. puuttuu, vain käänteinen muoto mahdollinen (rather ei toimi silloinkaan)

Saatoin kuulla syömmeni lyövän                   I could hear my heart beating

  • She has a new heart-throb.                    Hänellä on uusi ihastus.

sillä on hyvin kielteinen vaikutus                   it has very real negative effects on

  • to have an effect on X / to have an influence on X
  • to affect X / to influence X


Tämä huomioon ottaen                                 Given this


syrjäisessä paikassa                                       in the middle of nowhere

  • opettele

vähäisessä määrin                                           to a small degree

sen eri muodoissa                                            in its various forms

  • it’s ja its ovat eri asioita                         YTL ei armahda

takamailla                                                       in the outback

  • in the backwater
  • in the wilderness                                    villissä luonnossa

on käymässä aina vain vaikeammaksi            is becoming increasingly difficult

useimmat ihmiset                                            most of the humans

  • tätä kysytään ylppäreissä usein, siis opettele:
  • most students know this                          useimmat opiskelijat (yleisellä tasolla)
  • most of the students in my class            opiskelijat luokallani (rajattu vertailuryhmä)

Äänisaaste todellakin vaikuttaa meihin kielteisesti     Noise pollution does negatively affect us

  • ks. yllä


paitsi harmistusta                                          aside from annoyance

he vain kokevat yhtäkkisen helpotuksen tunteen         they just feel a sudden sense of relief

  • to have a sixth sense
  • a good sense of humour
  • That doen’t make sense.                         Tuossa ei ole järkeä.
  • a sensible choice                                     järkevä valinta

johtaa osittaiseen kuurouteen                         lead to partial deafness

huomattava kuulonmenetys                            substantial hearing loss

heikentynyt kuulo                                           an impaired hearing

  • myös: a hearing impediment

voidaan lukea johtuvaksi meluasiasta            can be attributed to a noise issue

  • hyvä rakenne tuo be attributed to X
  • Do you have issues with that?                Onko sulla joku asenneongelma?
  • This is an important issue.                      asiakysymys
  • Have you read the latest issue of Rolling Stone?      lehdennumero
  • All men were issued three pairs of socks.            kaikille jaettiin


mitä tulee ympäristökysymyksiin                when it comes to environmental issues

sitä, mistä emme tiedä, emme kaipaa            what we don’t know, we don’t miss

  • relatiivipronomini what on ylppäreiden vakiokamaa ja poikkeuksena muista se sisältää itse pääsanansa. Siis:
  • What you’re saying is true.  = That which you’re saying is true. (on oikein, mutta vähän puiseva)
  • Lahja minkä sain isoäidiltä oli kallis. (What on myös enkun kysymyssana, relatiivipron. what on aivan eri asia). Siis:
  • The present that/which I got from grandma was expensive.
  • the present what I got … ei käy, kun pääsana (present) löytyy edellisestä lauseesta
  • Vinkki: A-englannin ylppäreissä kysytään kieliopin raja- ja poikkeustapauksia, pääsääntöjen testaaminen ei erottele tarpeeksi. Relatiivipronomineista kysytään siis usein yllä olevaa.


jota ei voi välttää                                           which there’s no escaping


Tee itsellesi palvelus                                      Do yourself a favour

  • Do yourself a favour and … ostaa sinulle aikaa miettiä jatkoa
  • Kuten tämäkin: Why don’t you go ahead and … (sweep the floor etc.)

keskimäärin                                                     on average


Islantilaisen tulivuoren johdosta                  on account of the Icelandic volcano


Ihmisten on aika alkaa                                  It’s about time people started


yrittäen epätoivoisesti saada itsensä kuulluksi          in a desperate attempt to make themselves heard

  • teknisesti voisimme sanoa attempting desperately mutta tuo on parempi


korvia särkevä melu käy hermoilleni          the ear-splitting noise gets on my nerves

  • to suffer a nervous break-down
  • Pedro Almodovar: Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown
  • Naisia hermoromahduksen partaalla


on lievästi sanottu                                          is putting it mildly

Voi hyvänen aika!                                           For crying out loud!

  • Tarkoittaa myös: Voi herttileeri! J

P7 T6 Out of the blue                      Find the following phrases in the text and write them here. KEY


joka on koskaan asuttanut                               ever to have inhabited

  • an inhabitant / a denizen                       a citizen = kansalainen

yhteensä                                                          put together

  • altogether / all told

painaa peräti                                                  weigh as much as

  • as many as / as expensive as
  • more than / more reliable than
  • more quickly than
  • Mika and Kimi drive faster than other drivers.
  • Sebastian drives fastest of all / the fastest of all.

helposti                                                            with aplomb

  • It was as easy as ABC. / It was as easy as a very easy thing indeed.                                                                  Helppo nakki oli.

ei ole koskaan kokeiltu käytännössä            has never been put to the test

antaa … tiukan vastuksen                               give a modern Boeing 737 a run for its money


pituuden suhteen                                           in terms of length

  • as far as X is concerned / as to X / as for X / talking about X / regarding X           mitä jhnkn tulee

muutama kilo sinne tänne                             give or take the odd kilo

  • odd = pariton / even = parillinen
  • Don’t get mad, get even.

joka vuorokauden aikana                             every twenty-four hours

  • forty-eight hours / seventy-two hours
  • a fortnight = fourteen nights = two weeks
  • in six months / twelve months / eighteen months

kun se verkkaisesti risteilee valtamerellä       as it leisurely cruises the ocean

  • What do you like to do on your leisure time?

Paremminkin kuin luottaen                            Rather than relying on

se tuskin koskaan säilyy hengissä                   it hardly ever survives

  • the survival of the fittest

se täyttää keuhkonsa täyteen                        it fills its lungs to capacity


jotka sattuvat olemaan lähistössä                 that happen to be in the vicinity

  • in the proximity of  X                            jnkn läheisyydessä

pysyy jonkinlaisena arvoituksena                   remains something of an enigma

  • adj.  enigmatic
  • a riddle / en enigma / a problem / a conundrum
  • I had to remain in hospital after the accident.

eivät ole pystyneet varmistamaan vedenpitävästi        have not been able to ascertain conclusively

  • to say for sure

ovat yhtälailla kotonaan                                 are equally at home

joka ympäröi sen ruumista                              which envelopes its body

  • It’s time you took the dog for its evening walk.

on verrattavissa                                             is comparable to

sen tärkein saalistaja                                       its number one predator

valaanpyyntitukialusten tuleminen                the advent of factory ships

  • Lat. ad venire ’tulla tykö’

öljy, jota ne tuottivat                                       oil they yielded

  • The field yielded a record crop this year.
  • My grandfather didn’t yield in front of adversity / difficulties.
  • Stop! That traffic sign says ‘Yield’. Let those cars pass first before you turn left.

oli huipussaan                                                was at its peak

  • The audience saw the artist give a peak performance.

sukupuuton partaalle                                    on the brink of extinction

  • on the verge of   Pedro Almodovar:Women on The Verge of A Nervous Breakdown

Maailma tuli vihdoin järkiinsä                    The world finally came to its senses

uhanalainen laji                                               an endangered species

  • to die out / to become extinct
  • to be extinct

Kaupallinen metsästys ei myöskään ole         Nor is commercial hunting


ovat vaatineet veronsa                                   have taken a toll on

  • have been taxing on                                ’raskas, voimia verottava’

valaan perusravinnon                                      the whale’s staple diet


muodostavat uhan                                          pose a hazard

niiden polut kohtaavat harvoin                       their paths rarely cross

P7 T7 The mystery of crop circles               Find the following phrases in the text and write them here.            KEY


1600-luvulla                                                    in the 17th century

  • vuosi 1600 = 16 x 100, eli seitsemästoista vuosisata alkoi tuolloin, siis in the 17th century
  • a decade, a century, a millennium
  • in the early 2000s
  • in twenty twelve / twenty thirteen etc
  • in the twenties / thirties / forties / …
  • in the mid-twenties / in the late nineties
  • in 2014 / in the year 2014
  • in January / on Monday / in the afternoon / at midnight

yhtäkkinen ilmaantuminen                             the overnight emergence

ne kyllä toisinaan ilmaantuvat                        they do occasionally appear

  • Huomaa do-apuverbi myönteisessä preesensissä KOROSTUSTARKOITUKSESSA

on raportoitu                                                    have been reported


on usein sivuutettu                                         have often been brushed off


Ensinnäkin                                                     For one

ne olisi voitu luoda                                         they could have been created

yksityiskohtaisia kuvioita                               elaborate patterns

  • detailed / intricate

yhdestä uudesta kuviosta toiseen                    from one new pattern to another

  • myös: from one X to the other
  • from pattern to pattern

sillä he eivät ainoastaan kärsi                         as not only do they suffer

  • Kielteinen (tai muuten rajoittava) määre lauseen alussa kääntää sanajärjestyksen

mutta täytyy myös sietää                              but also have to put up with

lukevat tämän ilmiön … syyksi                      ascribe the phenomenon

  • mon: phenomena                                     OPETTELE! Enkussa ei ole juuri muita ‘ilmiö’-sanoja

yrittäessään kommunikoida                            in an attempt to communicate

  • to attempt / an attempt

jotkut jyväjemmarit pitävät pääsymaksua      some farmers charge entrance fees

taidokas huijaus                                              an elaborate hoax

  • You will jinx our trip if you walk under that ladder.          ‘koetella huonoa onnea’

raporttien mukaan jotkut niistä muodostuvat there are reports of some of them being formed


päivänvalossa                                                 in broad daylight

  • This is daylight robbery!                       Tämä maksaa aivan liikaa!

vähemmässä kuin 30 sek                                in less than half a minute


vuosien saatossa                                             over the years


kuinka paljon kiinnostusta tämä ilmiö on herättänyt             how much interest this phenomenon has generated


Ei ole yllättävää, että                                    Not surprisingly


ihmisten, joilla on liikaa ylimääräistä aikaa             people with lots of time on their hands


he ovat antaneet näkemyksensä ilmiöstä     they have given their take on the phenomenon

heidän tutkimuksensa on mielenkiintoista luettavaa    their research makes for interesting reading

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